ISBN-10: 1405149949

ISBN-13: 9781405149945

This selection of newly comissioned essays by means of foreign participants deals a consultant review of an important advancements in modern philosophical logic.

•Presents controversies in philosophical implications and purposes of formal symbolic good judgment.

•Surveys significant traits and gives unique insights.

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We then get hierarchies of terms that can be ordered in a so-called Porphyrian tree: 26 HISTORY OF LOGIC: MEDIEVAL Substance Corporeal Incorporeal Body Sensible Insensible Animal Rational Irrational Rational Animal Mortal Immortal Man Sortes Plato With respect to such trees, we encounter reasonings based on predications: Sortes is a man, and man is a rational animal. Therefore: Sortes is an animal. We can, however, ascend in the Porphyrian tree: An animal is a animate living body. Therefore: Sortes is a living body.

Boethius of Dacia (c. 1270) Henry of Ghent (c. 1217–93) Ralph Brito (c. 1290–1330) Siger of Kortrijk (d. 1341) Simon of Faversham (c. 1350–1420) Peter of Ailly (1350–1420/1) Paul of Venice (1369–1429) Paul of Pergola (1380–1455) Peter of Mantua (d. 1400) A Guide to the Literature The Aristotelian Organon is, of course, a prerequisite for medieval logic. G. Patzig, Aristotle’s Theory of the Syllogism (First German edn 1959) English translation by J. Barnes (Reidel: Dordrecht, 1969) is still the classical treatment of Aristotle’s theory, and Paul Thom, The Syllogism (Munich: Philosophia Verlag, 1981) offers a most thorough modern presentation.

Therefore, a natural place to begin the discussion of demonstrations would be with a general account of validity. ’ However, Aristotle thought that all valid arguments could be ‘reduced’ to a relatively limited set of valid forms which he usually refers to as ‘arguments in the figures’ (modern terminology refers to these forms as ‘syllogisms’; this can lead to confusion in discussing Aristotle’s theory). Aristotle maintained that a single proposition was always either the affirmation or the denial of a single predicate of a single subject: ‘Socrates is sitting’ affirms ‘sitting’ of Socrates, ‘Plato is not flying’ denies ‘flying’ of Plato.

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A Companion to Philosophical Logic


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