By P. A. Muraro, A. Lugaresi, D. Gambi (auth.), D. Gambi, P. A. Muraro, A. Lugaresi, U. Ecari (eds.)

ISBN-10: 884700067X

ISBN-13: 9788847000674

ISBN-10: 884702269X

ISBN-13: 9788847022690

P.A. MURARO, A. LUGARESI, D. GAMBI a few of the pathological elements of a number of sclerosis (MS) lesions were recognized for over a century. it is just lately, in spite of the fact that, that varied styles of demyelination were associated with specific pathways of immune-mediated tissue destruction. specifically, the inter-individual heterogeneity of MS lesions has instructed that various mechanisms may possibly act in numerous sufferers, accounting for the variety saw in scientific path, immunological findings in peripheral blood and cere­ brospinal fluid (CSF), and reaction to immunomodulatory remedies. to supply an summary of the elemental mechanisms potentially serious about MS lesion initiation and improvement, a global assembly was once geared up within the context of the yearly Congress of the Italian Neuroimmunology organization (AINI), held on the collage of Chieti, in Chieti Italy on 29 October 1998. The excessive commonplace of shows brought on us to file them in prolonged shape, to focus on fresh seasoned­ gress within the realizing of easy mechanisms maintaining MS immuno­ pathogenesis. A important function within the attainable mechanisms resulting in myelin destruc­ tion has been attributed to T lymphocytes reactive to myelin antigens. stories at the myelin antigen-specific T phone repertoire have contributed major advances to our wisdom of autoimmunity (Chapters 1,2).

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Ristori et al. NKRP 1A on the cell surface of "{D cells correlates with an increased ability to transmigrate across the vascular endothelium [18]. N-formylated peptide reactivity A different aspect, again in between the adaptive and the innate responses is the reactivity to N-formylated peptides. N-formylated peptides are typical products of prokaryotes and mitochondria since both initiate protein synthesis with an N-formylated methionine. In eukaryotes, the initiator methionine is not formylated [19].

Dani JW, Chernjavski A, Smith SJ (1992) Neuronal activity triggers calcium waves in hippocampal astrocyte networks. Neuron 8:429-440 10. Lee SC, Collins M, Vanguri P, Shin ML (1992) Glutamate differentially inhibits the expression of class II MHC antigens on astrocytes and microglia. J Immunol148:3391-3397 11. Frohman EM, Vayuvegula B, Gupta S, Van den Noort S (1988) Norepinephrine inhibits y-interferon-induced histocompatibility class II (Ia) antigen expression on cultured astrocytes via ~2-adrenergic signal transduction mechanisms.

CALLEA, C. FERRANDI , P. BUSSOLINO Introduction Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a mediator of homotypic and heterotypic cell-to-cell communication, activates inflammatory cells and lymphocytes through a seven-spanning transmembrane domain receptor [1,2]. Following appropriate stimulation, it is produced and released by monocytes, neutrophils, endothelial cells and T lymphocytes [3-8]. It is also produced by neurons and glial cells stimulated by neurotransmitters and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-u, respectively [9, 10].

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Advances in the Immunopathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis by P. A. Muraro, A. Lugaresi, D. Gambi (auth.), D. Gambi, P. A. Muraro, A. Lugaresi, U. Ecari (eds.)

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