By Flossie Wong-Staal, Robert C. Gallo
This reference describes the most recent advances within the improvement and layout of an HIV preventive vaccine-detailing the pathogenesis and genetic variability of HIV an infection for the development of molecular and healing ideas to lessen the development and transmission of AIDS. With contributions through universally famous professionals within the box, AIDS Vaccine examine discusses
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Additional resources for AIDS Vaccine Research
CD8ϩ T cells lacking CD28 expression are also increased in HIV disease (492–497), possibly reﬂecting the expansion of the CD8ϩCD28-CD57ϩ T cell subset containing in vivo activated CTL (498). The loss of CTL activity with disease progression is not restricted to HIV-speciﬁc CTL; a loss of cytotoxic activity to other common antigens including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and M. tuberculosis has also been observed (499,500). In addition to CTL activity, other CD8ϩ T cell functions are impaired during HIV disease progression, including loss of noncytolytic non-MHC restricted CD8ϩ T-cell–derived suppressor activity against HIV (264).
A possible mechanism for defective NK activity includes a lack of cytokines necessary for optimal function. Addition of either IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, or IFN-α to cultures enhances the defective in vitro NK cell function of HIV-infected individuals (554,555). Enhanced expression of cytolytic inhibitory receptors during the course of HIV infection may also be responsible for depressed NK cell function (556,557); in addition, selective HIV-mediated downregulation of HLA-A and 40 Cohen and Fauci ϪB but not HLA-C and ϪE molecules may prevent NK cell killing of HIVinfected target cells (558).
IMMUNE DYSFUNCTION DURING HIV INFECTION The pathogenesis of HIV disease is a complex, multifactorial process (283,358). A wide array of immune system deﬁcits are associated with HIV infection; abnormalities in the function of all limbs of the immune system, including T and B lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells, natural killer cells, and neutrophils, have been described. CD4؉ T Cells CD4ϩ T cell dysfunction and depletion are hallmarks of HIV disease. The proximate cause of the susceptibility to opportunistic infections observed with advancing disease is the defects in T-cell number and function that result directly or indirectly from HIV infection.
AIDS Vaccine Research by Flossie Wong-Staal, Robert C. Gallo