By Lisa C Ng, Andrew K Persily, Steven J Emmerich

16 reference constructions were outlined through the U.S. division of strength, and created as EnergyPlus enter documents, to be used in assessing new applied sciences and helping the improvement of strength codes in pursuing construction strength potency advancements. Infiltration charges within the EnergyPlus versions of the reference constructions have been enter as consistent airflow charges, and never calculated in response to proven construction airflow thought. on the way to aid extra physically-based airflow calculations, in addition to indoor air caliber research, types of the sixteen reference structures have been created within the multizone airflow and contaminant shipping software CONTAM. a couple of extra inputs needed to be outlined for the CONTAM versions, and adjustments within the inside zoning have been required, to extra realistically account for airflow. Annual airflow and contaminant simulations have been played in CONTAM for 6 of the constructions. whereas the assumed infiltration premiums in EnergyPlus don't realistically replicate affects of climatic conditions, there are transparent relationships among the open air air switch charges calculated through CONTAM and climate. furthermore, the envelope airtightness values assumed in both technique are visible to have a tremendous effect at the air switch charges. Contaminant analyses have been played for occupant-generated carbon dioxide, risky natural compounds from indoor assets, outdoors particulate topic, and outside ozone. The airflow and contaminant calculation effects supply an invaluable baseline for next use of those types to enquire methods to construction air flow and different applied sciences which are meant to at the same time decrease development strength intake whereas conserving or bettering indoor air caliber.

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847 1363 1 89 1 60 22 306 Daily peak contaminant concentrations Min. Max. ” values only apply to the zones in each building for which contaminant concentrations are reported (see Table 7 for selected zones). 31 Figure 20 to Figure 25 show the average and peak CO2 concentrations for the six simulated buildings. The differences in these values among the selected zones reflect variations in occupant density and outdoor air intake per person. For example, Figure 24a shows that the guestrooms in the Small Hotel have higher daily average CO2 concentrations than the Front Lounge and Meeting Room even though the maximum occupancies in the guestrooms are less.

5 concentrations among selected zones is similar within each simulated building. 5 enter these zones from the outdoors (air change rates based on zone volume) were counterbalanced by differences in deposition of these contaminants also based on zone volume. 5 concentrations are lower than the outdoor concentrations for all simulated buildings due to deposition and filtration. Based on the 2010 ozone data from the EPA AQS database (EPA 2011a) used in these simulations for Chicago, there were only 4 hours during the year (8760 total hours) for which the outdoor ozone level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) limit of 150 μg/m3 (EPA 2011b).

1st Flr Lobby Average VOC concentration ( g/m3) 5th Flr Dining Room 3rd Flr Nurse Stn. Lobby 3rd Flr Patient Room 3 2nd Flr OR 2 1st Flr ER Nurse Stn. 5 80 65 75 85 90 95 5th Flr Office 2 5th Flr Dining Room 70 3rd Flr Patient Room 4 3rd Flr Nurse Stn. Lobby Outdoors 3rd Flr Lab 3rd Flr Patient Room 3 2nd Flr ICU 95 2nd Flr OR 2 80 90 1st Flr ER Exam 3 85 2nd Flr ICU Patient Room 3 75 1st Flr ER Nurse Stn. 5 concentration ( g/m3) 40 (a) Ozone 65 70 5th Flr Office 2 5th Flr Dining Room Average ozone concentration ( g/m3) 40 3rd Flr Patient Room 4 3rd Flr Nurse Stn.

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Airflow and Indoor Air Quality Models of DOE Reference Commercial Buildings by Lisa C Ng, Andrew K Persily, Steven J Emmerich

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