By Instituto Caribe de Antropologia y Sociologia de la Fundacion La Salle
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Extra resources for Antropologica, n. 52, 1979
R. Radcli√e-Brown and in intellectual dialogue with Emile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss’s journal L’anné sociologique. Mauss’s canonic The Gift (1925), which continues to generate commentaries, draws upon Malinowski’s ﬁeldwork on the kula ring in Melanesia, Elsdon Best’s account of Maori exchange, Boas’s ﬁeldwork on potlatch exchange up and down the rivers of the northwest coast of North America, and examples of other exchange systems from ancient times to modern France. These exchange systems demonstrate how ceremonial trade circuits not only carry along ordinary trade, but also stimulate production, require ritual both to regulate social relations and environmental ones, organize politics, elicit competitive agonism, and generate elaborate jural distinctions, typologies of gifts, and stages of gift-giving.
This line of Freudian attention to the cultural formation of personhood in different cultures and social structures was taken up by the culture and personality school of American anthropology in the 1930s and 1940s, which included Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Cora Du Bois, A. I. ‘‘Pete’’ Hallowell, and Clyde Kluckohn, and by later Freudian psychological anthropologists like Mel Spiro, Anthony Wallace, Gananath Obeysekere, Robert LeVine, Robert Levy, and Waude Krache. The culture and personality school experimented with statistical distributions of personality types selected by a culture.
In Return I Give Water, 2005, etching and aquatint print by Germaine Arnaktauyok. A perfect illustration of Mauss’s The Gift (1925) and the culture of mindfulness of reciprocity between humankind and the environment, the return gift of fresh water is to aid the seal in its journey into the next world. Arnaktauyok, of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, remembers as a girl coming upon her father on the ice engaging in this rite. Born in Igloolik (now Nunavut) in 1946 to the carvers Therese Nattok and Isidore Iyotok, she is well known for her prints, children’s book illustrations, and the design of ‘‘The Drummer’’ on the two-dollar Canadian coin (1999), celebrating the creation of the Territory of Nunavut (as well as for her mother-and-child design for a two-hundred-dollar gold coin issued in 2000).
Antropologica, n. 52, 1979 by Instituto Caribe de Antropologia y Sociologia de la Fundacion La Salle